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By Norberto I. Schinitman
This work attempts to make a contribution to environmental sustainability and human health, from the point of view of environmental education. In it, certain remarkable facts related to a very serious environmental problem are examined: chronic hunger and malnutrition
Household Food Security, Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition.
"Progress for curb hunger
in the world have decreased " UN, 2003
This work attempts to make a contribution to environmental sustainability and human health, from the point of view of environmental education. In it, certain remarkable facts related to a very serious –and rarely mentioned – environmental problem: chronic hunger and malnutrition. Likewise, the concepts and principles of the desired "Home Food Security", or family level (SAH, in this article) are made explicit, as well as some possibilities of approach to its achievement.
Undoubtedly, SAH is a topic of great importance at a global level, which should be included in the basic education of all people. In this way, it could help to alleviate malnutrition and its terrible consequences, and to avoid certain ETAs (food-borne diseases).
In addition, some notions, details and proposals are presented that can contribute to the strengthening of the SAH and that we should all know.
The article is developed following a sequential thematic chain, with a formative approach that foresees the presentation of some matters in the form of tables.
2. Current situation
Recently (2005), when recalling the 60th anniversary of the constitution of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or Food and Agriculture Organization, for its acronym in English), the President of Brazil stated that:
“ Hunger is synonymous with lack of… health… decent living conditions for… millions of people.”
Luiz I. da Silva
According to recent optimistic estimates, on the basis of efficient management, without putting excessive pressure on productive ecosystems, our planet could produce enough food for almost twice the current world population, which is about 6,400 million, with a reasonable average supply of about 2,700 calories per day per person, well above the critical minimum for survival established by international organizations, which is 1,500 daily calories per person.
However, in contrast to this possibility, feasible on the basis of the amazing development, among others, of biotechnology and genetics, on our wonderful blue planet today we are presented with a terrifying scenario of increasing chronic hunger and malnutrition, rarely mentioned among the most serious environmental problems.
Unfortunately, according to current FAO data, (The state of The insecurity Alimentaria in the world - Annual Report 2004), Chronic hunger, that is, the shortage of basic foods that causes widespread misery, and malnutrition, situations resulting from the lack of OSA, cause enormous suffering to an increasing number of people, currently exceeding 850 million, particularly in the developing countries, where an estimated one in five people suffer from chronic hunger.
For this reason, annually, more than five million toddlers perish and more than 20 million underweight babies are born, who are at greater risk of dying in infancy; those who survive often suffer from physical and mental disabilities that persist throughout their lives.
Unfortunately, global society –in which many enjoy modernism, well-being, health and education and, sometimes, even undergo treatments to reduce their body overweight – little cares about helping the most deprived and fighting hunger and malnutrition. Furthermore, the resources needed to solve this tragic misadventure are scarce in relation to the benefits that would result from investing them in such a noble and humanitarian cause.
Another negative aspect of this excruciating situation is that sometimes, in some countries, large quantities of food are burned or destroyed, just for commercial reasons, due to excess production, to maintain their prices.
There is consensus that it is possible to improve the dire situation of those who suffer from hunger by applying tactics that simultaneously tackle both the causes and the consequences of hunger and extreme poverty. To do this, the availability of food should be improved, the income of the poor population increased, their productive activities strengthened, and programs implemented to provide the most needy families with direct and immediate access to food. All of these very important actions contribute to SAH.
3. Maximum premonitory
Let us consider, by way of introduction, a healthy maxim, of great validity in the present, that was bequeathed to us, almost two thousand years ago, by a renowned Hispanic-Latino jurisconsult and professor of rhetoric:
“ I don't live to eat; how to live”
Marco Fabio Quintiliano (c.35-c.96)
As we shall see, the substance of this moral is particularly topical. There is no doubt that if people were satisfied with only eating what was necessary to live, many would live longer and better and at the same time would contribute positively to the general SA.
Historically, eating is one of the most important and essential individual, family and social activities. It is very important to have the means and enough time for meals, and to eat food calmly, in a healthy, comfortable and pleasant environment.
Those who enjoy a reasonable diet, including where possible tasty and pleasant meals prepared properly, providing sufficient and correct –but not excessive – nutrition, achieve both an essential factor for health and well-being, and a source of gratification.
Certainly, a rational, healthy, moderate and pleasant diet has a beneficial influence on growth, development, school and work performance and many other aspects that contribute to leading a healthy and active life.
So, as Quintiliano well exemplified, if we all ate with prudence and measure, without excesses or waste, both of food supplies and of prepared meals, avoiding an exaggerated and unnecessary consumption of food resources, the quality of life of many people would rise .
At the same time, it should be constantly kept in mind that
"Global biodiversity is in danger and this could seriously compromise global food security ..." FAO, 2004
Therefore, the reduction of consumption and the consequent increase in the mass of available food inputs would do a lot of good for all, since they would contribute significantly to the Home Food Safety, to the Sustainable Development, by Human Development, a the Quality of lifealready Human Security(See Section 13).
4. Food Safety
If it were proposed to us as a very important global social goal " ensure that all people have physical and economic access at all times to sufficient, safe and nutritious food adequate to meet their dietary needs”, Surely the vast majority of society would fully agree.
Undoubtedly, it would be highly desirable to be able to achieve that most important and benevolent goal that, of course, humanity has not yet achieved. Also, why is the paragraph with which the goal was stated emphasized? Simply because it paraphrases the definition of Food safety (SA) of FAO.
In general, the Food safety, A cardinal idea linked mainly, as previously mentioned, with environmental aspects of great importance, refers to the satisfaction of certain fundamental social demands, both collective and individual, which are outlined in Table I, which is presented below.
- The concept of Food Safety institutes that all people must:
» Have physical and economic access to various foods.
» Eat a healthy diet, which includes the necessary nutrients and calories, so that you can lead a healthy and active life.
Regarding Household or Family Food Security (SAH), we take into consideration that
“A household enjoys food security if it has access to the food necessary for a healthy life for all its members (adequate food from the point of view of quality, quantity and safety, and culturally acceptable), and if it is not exposed to excessive risks loss of such access ”.
World Food Summit (Rome, 1996)
The general SA and the SAH are mainly based on three major basic conditions, which must concur simultaneously. Indeed, on the one hand, there must be enough food available Y accessible for everyone and, on the other hand, you have to know what is necessary to use in the best possible way the food we can get. These conditions are briefly explained in the following table II.
Home Food Safety (SAH)
|Basic Conditions||Good quality, safe and commonly consumed foods must:|
|to.||Availability||Produced locally, brought from neighboring regions or imported from other countries, in sufficient quantity and quality, duly controlled.|
|b.||Accessibility||Be marketed at retail in the place of residence of the family, with prices that are accessible to all families.|
|c.||Utilization||To be conserved and used effectively so that everyone stays healthy and active; be cooked and served according to the needs of each one, in sufficient quantity and variety.|
On the other hand, to achieve the SA at the national level, countries must, in addition to being able to produce or import the necessary food in a timely and convenient manner, configure a legal regulatory framework, be in a position to put it into effect and have the capacity to store, control, distribute and guarantee equitable access to food.
In turn, to achieve SAH, families must have sufficient means of payment to purchase the food they need, guarantees of health, safety, quality, environmental, etc., with respect to such foods; of place and suitable means to preserve them and they must also have the appropriate knowledge and the time necessary to ensure that the nutritional needs of all family members are permanently met.
5. Definitions of Food Safety
Various international organizations have instituted definitions of general Food Security that are very similar and coincide with each other. The one used in a broad and generalized way in the bibliography is the one issued by FAO, (which I have highlighted at the beginning of the previous section, in a translated and paraphrased version), which in this article I have taken as a paradigm.
Another widely cited definition is the one established in 1992 by the USAID (United States Agency for International Development, or, according to its acronym in English, US Agency for International Development), which denotes that the SA is verified
"When all people have physical and economic access to enough food to meet their dietary needs for a healthy and productive life."
On the other hand, it should be clarified that some authors, specialized rather in food technology than in general environmental problems and sustainability, sometimes use the expressions "food safety" or "food safety", to refer mainly to one of the basic aspects of the SA, related mainly to ensuring the safety, quality and wholesomeness of food throughout the food chain.
6. Conditions of Home Food Safety
Examining in a broad sense the concept of SAH, mainly at the urban level, for it to be achieved, various conditions must be present, including those mentioned in the next table III.
Home Food Safety
Conditions conducive to its achievement
|Mainly in relation to||Conditions that contribute to its achievement|
|to.||The local availability of food.||a.1||Existence, in the place of residence of the family, of a sufficient and adequate diversity of suitable and safe food, throughout the year. Drinking water is considered food.|
|b.||Those responsible for acquiring food for the family.||b.1||Easy access and return, without walking long distances, or by means of public transport, to the mouths or places of exhibition and sale.|
|b.2||Regularly have the money necessary to obtain a sufficient quantity and variety of food for the whole family.|
|c.||Those responsible for family nutrition, mostly women.||c.1||Acquire the correct basic nutritional, culinary and related knowledge and have time to ensure that cooked food sufficiently meets the needs of each child and adult. It is convenient that all adults in the home acquire this knowledge.|
|This list is neither exhaustive nor hierarchical.|
7. Basic knowledge that contributes to Home Food Security
As previously stated, SAH depends to a large extent on the persons responsible for the family having certain knowledge –basic, but very important – about food and nutrition. Some of them, the most necessary and relevant, are compiled in the following table IV.
Home Food Safety
Basic knowledge that contribute to your achievement
|The people in charge of the household and of the feeding of its members, mostly women, must have at least the following basic knowledge related to food and nutrition, which should be updated with some frequency.|
|to.||Purchase of fresh and packaged food; organoleptic properties corresponding to freshness and suitability; possibilities and requirements for adequate conservation; correct culinary preparation, according to the nutrient and calorie needs of each family member, child or adult; and others related.|
|b.||Food available in every season of the year; its variety, properties, main nutrients, substitution, quantity, conservation possibilities, closest and most convenient suppliers, prices, packaging, labels and related aspects.|
|c.||Appropriate decision about the selection, storage, preparation, distribution and consumption of food at the family level. Food is associated with customs, practices, beliefs, knowledge, education and family possibilities.|
|d.||Optimal food consumption (meal planning), since the health conditions, well-being and school and work performance of people depend on the maximum use of the nutrients contained in the food they eat.|
|This list is neither exhaustive nor hierarchical.|
8. Socio-cultural aspects related to the preparation and consumption of food
Many of the notable modifications promoted in the habits of purchase, preparation and consumption of food, which influence SAH, result from the great changes that our current ways of life have undergone, obviously very different from those of not too distant times.
Among the great social changes we can mention our current fast life, the increase in the number of women who work in various professions and trades and at the same time act as housewives; the increase in small single-person dwellings; and the existence of single parent families.
This has caused, for example, notable increases in the consumption of ingredients or long-lasting packaged foods, the offer of frozen prepared meals, meals in restaurants or the like, fast foods, timely home delivery of meals. prepared hot ready to eat, etc.
One of the consequences of this new situation has been the notable advances in food technology and food processing, packaging and preservation techniques that, when used well, contribute to ensuring a safe, healthy and safe food supply, contributing to the SA.
9. Food safety, quality and sanity
The concept of safety refers to the risks associated with the possibility that certain foods may harm human health.
In broad terms, it is accepted that foods in common use should be safe, that is, consumed without excess, they do not imply risks to health, so their availability is an important part of SA. However, some foods that are usually safe for most can affect some people.
Another relevant aspect to take into consideration within the expectations of the SAH is that, despite all the health advances, with a certain frequency there are cases of food-borne illnesses (ETAs), due to natural contaminants or contaminants incorporated into food accidentally or through negligence.
Obviously, the quality and health of the food we consume depends on the good performance and efforts of all those involved in the complex chain of agricultural production, processing, transportation, production and delivery for food consumption. As expressed by the WHO (World Health Organization, WHO, in English), referring mainly to the quality and safety of food,
“ the food safety is a shared responsibility from farm to fork."
To maintain quality and safety throughout the food chain, it is necessary that there is a regulatory framework that ensures the health of food and other related aspects, as well as convenient controls to ensure compliance.
EU regulations, for example, which are among the strictest in the world, involve the entire food chain of animals and humans and hold producers and suppliers responsible to guarantee the quality and wholesomeness of the food supply.
10. Biological use of food
This concept refers to the use of food by the individual and is related to individual health, a balanced and safe diet, hygiene, sanitation and other related issues.
The main obstacles to the efficient biological use of food, which must be progressively overcome to achieve good SAH, come from the lack of personal hygiene and clothing; poor home hygiene, lack of refrigeration for conservation, poor handling; use of non-potable water for hygiene and cooking; poor quality or lack of health services, sewage services or septic tanks, etc.
Concurrently, the quality of the water is a primary factor for the proper utilization of food. Poor quality, undrinkable water can cause –among many other diseases- diarrhea, which is one of the five main causes of death for children under 5 years of age in the world.
11. Location of households at risk of food insecurity
Households at risk of food insecurity are generally found in areas where various factors coexist, such as fragile ecosystems, low food production, isolation, and limited availability of water, health and educational services.
On the other hand, household food insecurity increases in times of crisis, such as disasters caused by natural phenomena (floods, drought, storms, earthquakes), epidemics, economic crises, war, etc.
Estimates indicate that many of the poorest people, who experience food insecurity and deficiency, live (or perhaps it would be more correct to say subsist) in South and East Asia and in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The incidence of food insecurity is high in South Asia and Central Africa, moderately high in the Middle East and North Africa, and considerably lower in East Asia and in Latin America and the Caribbean.
12. Intervention and responsibilities of Consumers in Home Food Safety.
Consumers are the bottom link in the food chain and their interventions are extremely important to SAH. Special care must be taken to prevent food that has been suitable until the moment of purchase, from being contaminated on the way home and / or at home. Also, some fresh foods can be unhealthy if they are not properly washed and prepared beforehand, or if they are insufficiently roasted or cooked.
All the necessary precautions must be taken so that eating remains a pleasant and healthy experience, without risks or fears.
The following Table V presents some proposals that contribute to completing the basic knowledge necessary for SAH mentioned in Table IV of Section 7.
» It is essential that water for drinking, for food preparation, for cleaning the kitchen and utensils, for cleaning those who prepare meals and for general domestic use, be potable. Running water may be available, but it may not be potable.
» If the quality of the water is in doubt, it should be boiled, cooled and aerated, transferring it from one container to another, before drinking or using it.
» Another possibility is to disinfect the water (do not do it without prior consultation with suitable local references and / or if you have any doubts) by adding a few drops of aqueous sodium hypochlorite solution (sometimes used as a bleach for washing clothes) per liter of water. . Common sodium hypochlorite is used, without degreasing, flavoring or other additives. The importance of obtaining prior health advice and reading the product label carefully before use is reiterated.
» Always check the expiration date of packaged food. Sometimes the containers displayed in stores are mixed, so it is convenient to check their expiration one by one.
» Make sure food packaging is healthy. Do not buy rusty, stained, dented or warped cans, broken or bent containers. In jars and / or other containers, verify the integrity of the closures and / or security seals.
» When purchasing products with the indication "Store refrigerated (in a refrigerator, refrigerator, or refrigerator, at about 6 ºC)", or "Store frozen (in the freezer or freezer, at about -18ºC)", make sure that they have been previously stored under conditions adequate hygiene and refrigeration or freezing.
» When shopping, purchase all the necessary non-perishable and non-chilled products in advance, leaving foods that require refrigeration for last. In order not to “cut” or interrupt the “cold chain”, return quickly to the home, and store them promptly where they correspond, in the refrigerator or freezer (freezer). If frozen food has thawed, do not refreeze it.
» Store food in closed containers before putting it in the refrigerator.
» Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods and store them separately. This will reduce the risk of cross contamination by microorganisms that pass from one food to another.
» Red meat, poultry, and fish should be stored in the lower part of the refrigerator and cooked foods on the upper shelves.
» Red meat, particularly in the form of hamburgers, meatballs or the like, must be cooked until the temperature inside the dough exceeds 72 ºC. In practice, this can be verified with considerable certainty by observing in cooked meats the external coloration that must be the typical dark brown and that in the center-interior of the steaks, hamburgers, etc., the coloration is also the typical dark brown and not red or reddish portions, drops or juices are observed.
» Do not put hot food in the refrigerator, to avoid an increase in temperature.
» Carefully dispose of food that looks bad, smells or tastes strange, fungus, etc.
» Packaged foods, cans, jars, boxes, bags, etc., should be stored in a clean, dry, cool, ventilated, dark place that does not receive direct sunlight.
» Newly purchased food packages should be stored behind their similar ones already stored, in order to previously consume the ones closest to expiring.
» It is very important to always wash your hands with preferably hot drinking water and soap before handling food.
» Small wounds should be covered with waterproof adhesive bandages.
» Dry your hands with a clean towel, exclusively for that use. Never use the dish towels or cloths.
» If you stop working in the kitchen, even for a short time, to carry out other tasks (attending to visitors, talking on the phone, using the bathroom, etc.), you must wash your hands again with hot soapy water before resuming work. food handling.
» Kitchen table surfaces must be kept clean. Wash frequently with hot water, soap, and approved disinfectants to avoid cross contamination.
» Pre-wash all utensils and cutting boards that will be used during food preparation. A knife used to cut raw meats can carry microorganisms that can pass onto other foods. Use different knives and boards to cut meats, raw vegetables, and cooked foods. Wash all utensils frequently.
» Thoroughly wash fresh fruits and vegetables with drinking water before eating or cooking.
» For greater safety, (do not do it without prior consultation with suitable local references and / or if you have any doubts), it may be convenient to wash raw leafy vegetables with alcohol vinegar diluted in drinking water and rinse them later with plenty of water.
» Thaw food in the refrigerator and cook it immediately, as soon as it has thawed.
» Do not leave fresh food that can become contaminated or food cooked at room temperature for longer than necessary, and never for more than two hours.
» Cool cooked food as soon as possible (preferably in shallow pots or pans with a lid) and then refrigerate. This slows down the proliferation of microorganisms, which occurs mostly between 10º C and 60º C.
» Reheat cooked food to destroy microorganisms that may have reproduced during storage.
» If the safety of a food is in doubt, discard it before risking contracting an ETA (Foodborne Disease).
13. Some important concepts, principles and definitions about food and related topics that we should all know
Next, table VI includes a synthesis of some relevant food aspects, which we all should know, related to nutrition, food, its packaging, labeling and related topics, which contribute to complete the basic knowledge necessary for Household Food Safety mentioned in Table IV of Section 7. Obviously, this list is not presented in order of importance.
» Food. Any substance or mixture of natural and / or manufactured substances that provide the body with the materials and energy necessary for its biological processes. Substances or mixtures that are commonly ingested, even if they do not have nutritional value, are also considered foods.
» Normal food. The one that does not contain unauthorized additions and is sold under the legal name and labeling.
» Safe food. In general, those that, due to their quality and health, do not imply risks to the health of consumers, if they are ingested in sufficient quantities, but not excessive. In certain cases, foods considered safe for the vast majority of people can affect some. The availability of safe food is an important part of Food Security.
» Contaminated food. The one that contains viruses, microorganisms or parasites that are dangerous to health, substances foreign to their normal composition, or toxic natural components in a concentration greater than that legally permitted.
» Drinking water. Water suitable for human consumption, food preparation and similar uses. By extension, drinking water is regarded as food.
» Consumer. Any person or family group that procures food for its own consumption.
» Availability of money to buy food. It depends on the stable employment of the person responsible (s) for the family, the financial assistance for eventual unemployment that could be obtained, and the reasonable possibility of obtaining an equivalent job if the job position is lost. The greater the number of members of a family who have rented work, the SAH increases.
» Human Security. Concept that foresees that security is not based on the strengthening of the state and the defense of its institutions against possible external threats, but on the promotion and protection of the rights that guarantee the security of people within society itself. Food Security is one of the primary conditions for its achievement.
» Expiration. The expiration date of the suitability of the food for consumption must be declared on the label or on the packaging by means of clear expressions such as: "Valid until ..."; "Expires…". "Consume before ..."; or something confusing like "preferably consume before ...". Although some authors suggest that for certain foods there is a short time frame for their use after expiration, it is highly recommended to consume them as soon as possible al vencimiento. Si se compran alimentos para mantenerlos en reserva por cierto tiempo, conviene verificar detenidamente las fechas de vencimiento y considerar si podrán usarse antes de vencer.
» HACCP. Sistema Internacional de Análisis de Riesgos y Puntos de Control Crítico (en español: ARPCC), para el control higiénico de la manipulación de alimentos, adoptado internacionalmente y ya obligatorio en la Unión Europea.
» Contaminación cruzada. Pasaje de microorganismos entre distintos alimentos. Puede producirse, principalmente, cuando se almacenan alimentos crudos junto a otros cocinados y/o por manipulación inapropiada de productos crudos y/o cocinados sin antes previo y cuidadoso lavado de manos, o por utilización de los mismos utensilios o equipos, sin previa higienización.
▪ Enfermedad celíaca. Alteración hereditaria de la capacidad del revestimiento interno del intestino delgado para absorber convenientemente los nutrientes. El revestimiento intestinal resulta dañado por la ingestión de prolaminas, proteínas que se encuentran en el gluten del trigo, avena, cebada y centeno y sus derivados. (Véase el apartado sobre TACC).
» TACC. Denominación conjunta de ciertas proteínas (prolaminas) que se encuentran en el gluten del trigo, avena, cebada y centeno, cuya ingestión no es conveniente para quienes padecen la enfermedad celíaca. Algunos alimentos cuyos rótulos certifican “No contiene TACC”, indican así que pueden ser consumidos por pacientes celíacos. (Véase el apartado sobre enfermedad celíaca).
» Fenilalanina. Uno de los aminoácidos presente en el edulcorante artificial denominado comercialmente Aspartamo. Este edulcorante es elaborado a base de dos aminoácidos esenciales, la fenilalanina y el ácido aspártico, que se encuentran naturalmente en muchos alimentos cárneos, lácteos, cereales, frutas y verduras. Durante la digestión ambos son metabolizados de igual modo que los aminoácidos de las proteínas procedentes de otros alimentos y no se acumulan en el organismo. Los productos alimenticios que contienen aspartamo (refrescos, postres, golosinas, etc.) deben llevar la advertencia preventiva “Fenilcetonúricos contiene fenilalanina”. (Véase el apartado sobre fenilcetonuria).
» Fenilcetonuria. Enfermedad hereditaria poco común, debida a la ausencia de la enzima fenilalanina-hidroxilasa, por lo que el organismo no metaboliza adecuadamente el aminoácido fenilalanina, presente naturalmente en muchos alimentos cárneos, lácteos, cereales, frutas y verduras. Puede causar retardo mental severo. Los fenilcetonúricos deben limitar la ingesta de fenilalanina, de cualquier origen. (Véase el apartado sobre fenilalanina).
» Trazabilidad. Procedimiento que permite el seguimiento de un alimento, mediante un sistema único para su identificación y control, a través de todas las etapas que atraviesa desde el campo o lugar de producción, hasta la mesa del consumidor: producción, transformación, transporte y distribución, elaboración culinaria y consumo.
» Rotulación de alimentos. Las etiquetas permiten controlar la seguridad de los alimentos. Deben ser fácilmente visibles, legibles y comprensibles. No pueden atribuir al producto propiedades que no posea.
» Etiquetas de alimentos. Las etiquetas deben incluir la denominación de venta del producto; el nombre y domicilio del fabricante; la lista de ingredientes; el contenido neto (en volumen o peso, o el peso escurrido, si corresponde), la fecha de caducidad o consumo preferente. No conviene comprar alimentos con etiquetas dudosas, borrosas, ilegibles, desprendidas, etc.
» Cadena de frío. Secuencia de acciones necesarias para garantizar la calidad de un alimento desde que se encuentra en su estado natural o precocinado, hasta su consumo. Si se refrigeran los alimentos hasta los –4º C, se inhibe el crecimiento de los microorganismos patógenos que generan toxinas que pueden provocar intoxicaciones; a –10º C se inhibe el crecimiento de los microorganismos responsables de la degradación y descomposición; y a –18º C se inhiben las reacciones que endurecen y dan una coloración pardusca a los alimentos. Esta última temperatura es la fijada para la cadena de frío internacional.
» Higiene alimentaria. Consiste en la implementación de diversas acciones tendientes a proteger al alimento de la contaminación por microorganismos perjudiciales, sustancias tóxicas y cuerpos extraños; inhibir el desarrollo de microorganismos patógenos, tratando de que se mantengan por debajo del nivel en que podrían causar daños a la salud; y destruir la totalidad de los microorganismos perjudiciales presentes en el alimento.
-Astiasarán, I.; Martínez, J. (2003). Alimentos: composición y propiedades. Madrid: McGraw-Hill-Interamericana.
-CDC National Center for Infectious Diseases. Handle and prepare food safely.(Consulta julio 2005) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/op/food.htm
-República Argentina. Código Alimentario Argentino.
-FAOFOCUS. Seguridad Alimentaria Sustentable. (Consulta agosto 2005).
-FAO. Rome Declaration on World Food Security. (Consulta agosto 2005).
-IRAM. Norma IRAM 14201
-ISO. Norma ISO 14001:04
-Miller, T. Ciencia ambiental. México: Thomson.
-Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (Consulta agosto 2005). Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria. http://www.fao.org/Spfs/index-esp
-Public Health Seattle (Consulta julio 2005). FDA Food Security Guidance.
– Schinitman, N. I. (2005). Alimentos: prevención de su contaminación.Ecoportal.Net, Buenos Aires. http:///content/view/full/43739
-Unión Europea. Seguridad Alimentaria. (Consulta agosto 2004).
-U. S. AID (1992). Policy determination. Definition of Food Security. http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/pd19.pdf
-U. Food and Drug Administration (2004). Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance. http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces140.html
* Prof. Norberto I. Schinitman
Master en Educación Ambiental
Auditor Ambiental, Bioquímico.