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Agreement of the peoples in the World Conference of the Peoples on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth - April 22 Cochabamba, Bolivia

Agreement of the peoples in the World Conference of the Peoples on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth - April 22 Cochabamba, Bolivia


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The capitalist system has imposed on us a logic of competition, progress and unlimited growth. This decision is the responsibility of all peoples.


Today, our Mother Earth is wounded and the future of humanity is in danger.

If global warming increases by more than 2º C, which would lead to the so-called “Copenhagen Understanding”, there is a 50% probability that the damage caused to our Mother Earth will be totally irreversible. Between 20% and 30% of the species would be in danger of disappearing. Large areas of forests would be affected, droughts and floods would affect different regions of the planet, deserts would spread and the melting of the poles and glaciers in the Andes and the Himalayas would worsen. Many island states would disappear and Africa would suffer a temperature increase of more than 3º C. Likewise, the production of food in the world would be reduced with catastrophic effects on the survival of the inhabitants of vast regions of the planet, and would increase by dramatically the number of hungry in the world, which already exceeds the figure of 1.02 billion people.

The corporations and governments of the so-called “more developed” countries, in complicity with a segment of the scientific community, make us discuss climate change as a problem reduced to the rise in temperature without questioning the cause that is the capitalist system .

We face the terminal crisis of the patriarchal civilizational model based on the subjugation and destruction of human beings and nature that accelerated with the industrial revolution.

The capitalist system has imposed on us a logic of competition, progress and unlimited growth. This system of production and consumption seeks unlimited profit, separating the human being from nature, establishing a logic of domination over it, turning everything into merchandise: water, land, the human genome, ancestral cultures, biodiversity, justice, ethics, the rights of peoples, death and life itself.

Under capitalism, Mother Earth becomes a source only of raw materials and human beings in means of production and consumers, in people who are worth for what they have and not for what they are.

Capitalism requires a powerful military industry for its accumulation process and control of territories and natural resources, repressing the resistance of the peoples. It is an imperialist system of colonization of the planet.

Humanity is faced with a great dilemma: continue on the path of capitalism, predation and death, or embark on the path of harmony with nature and respect for life.

We need to forge a new system that restores harmony with nature and among human beings. There can only be balance with nature if there is equity between human beings.

We propose to the peoples of the world the recovery, revaluation and strengthening of the knowledge, wisdoms and ancestral practices of the Indigenous Peoples, affirmed in the experience and proposal of "Living Well", recognizing Mother Earth as a living being, with which we have an indivisible, interdependent, complementary and spiritual relationship.

To face climate change we must recognize Mother Earth as the source of life and forge a new system based on the principles of:

• harmony and balance between everyone and with everything
• complementarity, solidarity, and equity
• collective well-being and satisfaction of the fundamental needs of all in harmony with Mother Earth
• respect for the Rights of Mother Earth and Human Rights
• recognition of the human being for what he is and not for what he has
• elimination of all forms of colonialism, imperialism and interventionism
• peace among peoples and with Mother Earth.

The model we advocate is not one of destructive or limitless development. Countries need to produce goods and services to satisfy the fundamental needs of their population, but in no way can they continue on this development path in which the richest countries have an ecological footprint 5 times larger than the planet is capable of. put up with. At present, the planet's capacity to regenerate has already been exceeded by more than 30%. At this rate of overexploitation of our Mother Earth, 2 planets would be needed by 2030.

In an interdependent system of which human beings are one of its components, it is not possible to recognize rights only to the human part without causing an imbalance in the entire system. To guarantee human rights and restore harmony with nature, it is necessary to recognize and effectively apply the rights of Mother Earth.

For this, we propose the attached project of the Universal Declaration of Rights of Mother Earth in which the following are stated:

• Right to life and to exist;
• Right to be respected;
• Right to the continuation of their life cycles and processes free from human alterations;
• Right to maintain their identity and integrity as differentiated, self-regulating and interrelated beings;
• Right to water as a source of life;
• Right to clean air;
• Right to comprehensive health;
• Right to be free from contamination and pollution, toxic and radioactive waste;
• Right not to be genetically altered and modified in its structure threatening its integrity or vital and healthy functioning.
• Right to a full and prompt restoration for violations of the rights recognized in this Declaration caused by human activities.

The shared vision is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations to make effective Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that determines “the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents anthropogenic interference dangerous for the climate system ”. Our vision is, based on the principle of common but differentiated historical responsibilities, to demand that developed countries commit to quantified emission reduction goals that allow the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to be returned to 300 ppm and thus, limit the increase in global mean temperature to a maximum level of 1 ° C.

Emphasizing the need for urgent action to achieve this vision, and with the support of peoples, movements, and countries, developed countries must commit to ambitious emission reduction goals that allow us to achieve short-term objectives, maintaining our vision in favor of balance. of the Earth's climate system, in accordance with the ultimate objective of the Convention.

The “shared vision” for “Long-Term Cooperative Action” should not be reduced in the negotiation of climate change to defining the limit in the increase in temperature and the concentration of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere, but should include A comprehensive and balanced set of financial, technological, adaptation, capacity building, production patterns, consumption measures and other essential measures such as the recognition of the rights of Mother Earth to restore harmony with nature.

The developed countries, the main causes of climate change, assuming their historical and current responsibility, must recognize and honor their climate debt in all its dimensions, as the basis for a just, effective and scientific solution to climate change. In this framework, we demand that developed countries:

• Restore to developing countries the atmospheric space that is occupied by their greenhouse gas emissions. This implies the decolonization of the atmosphere by reducing and absorbing its emissions.

• Assume the costs and technology transfer needs of developing countries due to the loss of development opportunities due to living in a restricted atmospheric space.

• Take responsibility for the hundreds of millions who will have to migrate due to the climate change that they have caused and that they eliminate their restrictive migration policies and offer migrants a life of dignity and all rights in their countries.

• Assume the adaptation debt related to the impacts of climate change in developing countries, providing the means to prevent, minimize and address the damages that arise from their excessive emissions.

• Honor these debts as part of a larger debt to Mother Earth by adopting and applying the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth at the United Nations.

The focus should be not only on financial compensation, but mainly on restorative justice - that is, restoring integrity to the people and members that form a community of life on Earth.

We deplore the attempt by a group of countries to annul the Kyoto Protocol, the only specific legally binding instrument for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from developed countries.

We warn the world that despite being legally obliged, emissions from developed countries instead of reducing, grew by 11.2% between 1990 and 2007.

The United States, due to unlimited consumption, increased its GHG emissions by 16.8% during the period 1990 to 2007, emitting on average between 20 and 23 tons of CO2 per year per inhabitant, which represents more than 9 times the emissions corresponding to a average inhabitant of the Third World, and more than 20 times the emissions of an inhabitant of Sub-Saharan Africa.

We absolutely reject the illegitimate “Copenhagen Understanding”, which allows these developed countries to offer insufficient reductions of greenhouse gases, based on voluntary and individual commitments, that violate the environmental integrity of Mother Earth, leading to an increase of around 4ºC.


The next Conference on Climate Change to be held at the end of the year in Mexico must approve the amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, for the second commitment period to begin in 2013 to 2017, in which developed countries must commit significant domestic reductions of at least the 50% over the 1990 base year, not including carbon markets or other diversion systems that mask non-compliance with actual reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

We need to first establish a goal for all developed countries and then make an individual assignment for each developed country within the framework of a comparison of efforts between each of them, thus maintaining the Kyoto Protocol system for emission reductions. .

The United States of America, as the only country on Earth in Annex 1 that did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol, has a significant responsibility before all the peoples of the world in that it must ratify the Kyoto Protocol and commit to respect and comply with to its economy-wide emission reduction targets.

We peoples have the same rights of protection against the impacts of climate change and we reject the notion of adaptation to climate change understood as resignation to the impacts caused by historical emissions from developed countries, who must adapt their lifestyles and consumption before this planetary emergency. We are forced to face the impacts of climate change, considering adaptation as a process and not as an imposition, and also as a tool that serves to counteract them, showing that it is possible to live in harmony under a different model of life.

It is necessary to build an Adaptation Fund, as an exclusive fund to face climate change as part of a financial mechanism managed and conducted in a sovereign, transparent and equitable manner by our States. Under this Fund, it is necessary to assess: the impacts and their costs in developing countries and the needs that these impacts derive from, and record and monitor the support from developed countries. It must also manage a mechanism for compensation for damages due to past and future impacts, loss of opportunities and replacement due to extreme and gradual climatic events, and additional costs that could arise if our planet exceeds ecological thresholds as well as those impacts that are holding back the right to Live Well.

The "Copenhagen Understanding" imposed on developing countries by some States, beyond offering insufficient resources, intends in itself to divide and confront the peoples and seeks to extort money from developing countries by conditioning access to adaptation resources in exchange. of mitigation measures. Additionally, it is established as unacceptable that in international negotiation processes an attempt is made to categorize developing countries due to their vulnerability to climate change, generating disputes, inequalities and segregations among them.

The immense challenge we face as humanity to stop global warming and cool the planet will only be achieved by carrying out a profound transformation in agriculture towards a sustainable model of peasant and indigenous / native agricultural production, and other ecological models and ancestral practices that contribute to solve the problem of climate change and ensure Food Sovereignty, understood as the right of peoples to control their own seeds, land, water and food production, guaranteeing, through production in harmony with Mother Earth, local and culturally appropriate, the access of peoples to sufficient, varied and nutritious food in complementation with Mother Earth and deepening the autonomous production (participatory, community and shared) of each nation and people.

Climate Change is already producing profound impacts on agriculture and the lifestyles of the world's indigenous / native peoples and peasants, and these impacts will worsen in the future.

Agribusiness, through its social, economic and cultural model of globalized capitalist production and its logic of producing food for the market and not to comply with the right to food, is one of the main causes of climate change. Its technological, commercial and political tools only deepen the climate crisis and increase hunger on the planet. For this reason we reject Free Trade Agreements and Association Agreements and all forms of application of Intellectual Property Rights over life, current technological packages (agrochemicals, transgenic) and those that are offered as false solutions (agrofuels, geoengineering, nanotechnology, Terminator technology and the like) that will only exacerbate the current crisis.

At the same time we denounce how this capitalist model imposes mega infrastructure projects, invades territories with extractive projects, privatizes and commercializes water and militarizes the territories, expelling indigenous peoples and peasants from their territories, preventing Food Sovereignty and deepening the socio-environmental crisis.

We demand to recognize the right of all peoples, living beings and Mother Earth to access and enjoy water and we support the proposal of the Government of Bolivia to recognize water as a Fundamental Human Right.

The definition of forest used in the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which includes plantations, is unacceptable. Monocultures are not forests. Therefore, we demand a definition for negotiation purposes that recognizes native forests and rainforest and the diversity of the earth's ecosystems.

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples must be fully recognized, implemented and integrated into the climate change negotiations. The best strategy and action to avoid deforestation and degradation and protect native forests and rainforest is to recognize and guarantee the collective rights of lands and territories, especially considering that most of the forests and jungles are in the territories of indigenous peoples and nations. , peasant and traditional communities.

We condemn market mechanisms, such as the REDD mechanism (Reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and its versions + and ++, which is violating the sovereignty of the Peoples and their right to free, prior and informed consent, as well as the sovereignty of national States, and violates the rights, uses and customs of the Peoples and the Rights of Nature.

The polluting countries are obliged to directly transfer economic and technological resources to pay for the restoration and maintenance of forests and jungles, in favor of indigenous, native, and peasant peoples and ancestral organic structures. This should be a direct and additional compensation to the sources of financing committed by developed countries, outside the carbon market and never serving as carbon offsets. We demand that the countries stop local initiatives in forests and jungles based on market mechanisms and that propose non-existent and conditional results. We demand from governments a global program for the restoration of native forests and jungles, directed and administered by the peoples, implementing forest seeds, fruit trees and native flora. Governments must eliminate forest concessions and support the conservation of oil underground and an urgent halt to the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the jungles.

We demand that States recognize, respect and guarantee the effective application of international standards of human rights and the rights of Indigenous Peoples, in particular the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, ILO Convention 169 , among other relevant instruments, within the framework of negotiations, policies and measures to resolve the challenges posed by climate change. In particular, we demand that the States legally recognize the preexistence of the right over our territories, lands and natural resources to enable and strengthen our traditional ways of life and effectively contribute to the solution of climate change.

We demand the full and effective application of the right to consultation, participation and prior, free and informed consent of Indigenous Peoples in all negotiation processes as well as in the design and implementation of measures related to climate change.

At present, environmental degradation and climate change will reach critical levels, one of the main consequences being internal as well as international migration. According to some projections in 1995 there were around 25 million climate migrants, currently it is estimated at 50 million and the projections for the year 2050 are 200 to 1 billion people who will be displaced by situations derived from climate change.

Developed countries must assume responsibility for climate migrants, welcoming them into their territories and recognizing their fundamental rights, through the signing of international conventions that include the definition of climate migrant so that all States abide by their determinations.

Establish an International Court of Conscience to denounce, make visible, document, judge and punish violations of the rights of migrants, refugees and displaced persons in the countries of origin, transit and destination, clearly identifying the responsibilities of States, companies and other actors.

Current funding for developing countries for climate change and the Copenhagen Understanding proposal are negligible. Developed countries must commit new annual financing, in addition to Official Development Aid and from public sources, of at least 6% of their GDP to face climate change in developing countries. This is feasible considering that they spend a similar amount on national defense and spent 5 times more to rescue bankrupt banks and speculators, which seriously questions their global priorities and political will. This financing must be direct, without conditioning, and not undermine national sovereignty or the self-determination of the most affected communities and groups.

In view of the inefficiency of the current mechanism, the Mexico Conference should establish a new financing mechanism that operates under the authority of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, accountable to it, with a significant representation of developing countries to guarantee compliance with the financing commitments of Annex 1 countries.

It has been found that developed countries increased their emissions in the period 1990 - 2007, despite having stated that the reduction would be substantially aided by market mechanisms.

The carbon market has become a lucrative business, commodifying our Mother Earth, this does not represent an alternative to face climate change, since it plunders, devastates the land, water and even life itself.

The recent financial crisis has shown that the market is incapable of regulating the financial system, which is fragile and insecure in the face of speculation and the appearance of intermediary agents, therefore, it would be totally irresponsible to leave the care and protection of the financial system in its hands. own human existence and our Mother Earth.

We consider it inadmissible that the ongoing negotiations seek the creation of new mechanisms that expand and promote the carbon market, since the existing mechanisms never solved the problem of Climate Change nor were they transformed into real and direct actions to reduce greenhouse gases. .

It is essential to demand compliance with the commitments assumed by developed countries in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding the development and transfer of technology, as well as reject the "technological showcase" proposed by developed countries that only commercialize technology. It is essential to establish the guidelines to create a multilateral and multidisciplinary mechanism for participatory control, management and continuous evaluation of the exchange of technologies. These technologies must be useful, clean, and socially appropriate. Likewise, it is essential to establish a fund for financing and inventorying appropriate technologies that are free from intellectual property rights, in particular, patents that must go from private monopolies to be in the public domain, freely accessible and low-cost.

Knowledge is universal, and for no reason can it be the object of private property and exclusive use, nor can its applications in the form of technologies. It is the duty of developed countries to share their technology with developing countries, to create research centers for the creation of their own technologies and innovations, as well as to defend and promote their development and application for living well. The world must recover, learn, relearn the principles and approaches of the ancestral legacy of its native peoples to stop the destruction of the planet, as well as the ancestral knowledge and practices and recovery of spirituality in the reintegration of living well together with Mother Earth.

Considering the lack of political will of developed countries to effectively comply with their commitments and obligations assumed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, and in the absence of an international legal body to prevent and punish all those climate and environmental crimes and crimes that violate the rights of Mother Earth and humanity, we demand the creation of an International Court of Climate and Environmental Justice that has the binding legal capacity to prevent, judge and sanction the States , Companies and people who by action or omission pollute and cause climate change.

Support States that file lawsuits in the International Court of Justice against developed countries that do not comply with their commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, including their commitments to reduce greenhouse gases .

We urge the peoples to propose and promote a profound reform of the United Nations (UN), so that all its member states comply with the decisions of the International Court of Climate and Environmental Justice.

The future of humanity is in danger and we cannot accept that a group of rulers of developed countries want to define by all countries as they tried unsuccessfully to do at the Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen. This decision is the responsibility of all peoples. That is why it is necessary to carry out a World Referendum, plebiscite or popular consultation, on Climate change in which we are all consulted about: the level of emission reductions that developed countries and transnational companies should make; the financing that developed countries must provide; the creation of an International Court of Climate Justice; the need for a Universal Declaration of Rights of Mother Earth and; the need to change the current capitalist system.

The process of the World Referendum, plebiscite or popular consultation will be the result of a preparation process that ensures its successful development.

In order to coordinate our international actions and implement the results of this "Peoples' Agreement" we call for the construction of a World Peoples Movement for Mother Earth that will be based on the principles of complementarity and respect for diversity of origin and visions. of its members, becoming a broad and democratic space for the coordination and articulation of actions worldwide.

For this purpose, we adopt the attached global action plan so that in Mexico the developed countries of Annex 1 respect the current legal framework and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 50% and the different proposals contained in this Agreement are assumed.

Finally, we agreed to hold the 2nd World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth in 2011 as part of this process of building the World People's Movement for Mother Earth and to react to the results of the Climate Change Conference to be held at the end of the year in Cancun, Mexico.


Video: Peoples World Conference on Climate Change PWCCC (May 2022).